Data OMWWs inhibit ROS generation, and interfere with the proliferative, migratory and tubeformation abilities of HUVECs by inducing apoptosis. They have a stronger effect than HT alone,
possibly because of the synergistic action of different polyphenols present in the wastewaters. Low doses of XN or Metformin affect HUVECs by activating AMPK, an ATP sensor and master
regulator of cellular energy state, rather than inducing apoptiosis. Treated cells remain vital, but show reduced proliferation rate, migration rate and ability to form capillary-like networks.
OMWW, metformin and XN are also effective on tumour cells and have potential as cancer preventives. Conclusions: Metformin, XN and OMWWs activity on HUVECs makes them good candidates for anti-angiogenic chemoprevention and confirm AMPK as an important molecular target, common to different antiangiogenic strategies. The microenvironment has a pivotal role on keeping us healthy and chemoprevention can help the body to fight cancer. One could envisage different microenvironments of the body as biotopes.